Archives catégories Chirurgie Générale

Resveratrol and cancer: chemoprevention, apoptosis, and chemo-immunosensitizing activities.

Resveratrol and cancer: chemoprevention, apoptosis, and chemo-immunosensitizing activities.

Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2003 Mar;3(2):77-93.

Cal C1, Garban HJazirehi AYeh CMizutani YBonavida B.

Abstract

The polyphenolic compound Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytochemical and can be found in many plant species, including grapes, peanuts and various herbs. Several studies have established that Resveratrol can exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. It also has activity in the regulation of multiple cellular events associated with carcinogenesis. This review describes the general properties of Resveratrol including its relationship to estrogen, its effect on lipid metabolism, its cardiovascular effects, and its role on gene expression. Resveratrol has also been examined in several model systems for its potential effect against cancer. Its anti-cancer effects include its role as a chemopreventive agent, its ability to inhibit cell proliferation, its direct effect in cytotoxicity by induction of apoptosis and on its potential therapeutic effect in pre-clinical studies. In addition, Resveratrol has been shown to exert sensitization effects on cancer cells that will result in a synergistic cytotoxic activity when Resveratrol is used in combination with cytotoxic drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells. Clearly, the studies with Resveratrol provide support for the use of Resveratrol in human cancer chemoprevention and combination with chemotherapeutic drugs or cytotoxic factors in the treatment of drug refractory tumor cells.

ETUDE SU.VI.MAX QUELQUES RESULTATS

Premiers resultats de l’etude SUVIMAX

Food TodayL’étude SUVIMAX, l’une des plus importantes études françaises sur les effets des vitamines et minéraux antioxydants prévenant les maladies cardiaques chroniques ainsi que le cancer, a finalement rendu son verdict. Seuls les hommes ont tiré profit des suppléments antioxydants… parce que les femmes suivaient un meilleur régime alimentaire auparavant.

Les experts en nutrition ont dû entendre parler de SUVIMAX. Pour ceux qui n’en ont pas encore entendu parler, voici en quelques mots : SUVIMAX est l’abréviation de suppléments en vitamines et minéraux antioxydants. Il s’agit de la première étude à démontrer que les suppléments alimentaires réduisent aussi bien la mortalité que les risques de cancer en Occident. Cette étude se distingue par l’emploi de taux réels de vitamines et de minéraux antioxydants équivalents à ce qui pourrait être obtenu, de manière naturelle, avec une alimentation équilibrée et riche en fruits et légumes, plutôt que des méga-doses qui n’ont montré aucun résultat positif lors des études précédentes. Selon M. Jean Nève, professeur à l’Université Libre de Bruxelles et membre du Comité Scientifique et du Comité de Surveillance du projet SUVIMAX, cette différence a son importance.

Des années de recherche

Il a fallu huit ans pour réunir les informations sur le régime alimentaire et la santé et prendre des échantillons de sang de 13.000 volontaires, dont 5 000 hommes et 8 000 femmes. Les participants à l’étude en double aveugle – où ni les chercheurs ni les sujets ne savaient à quel groupe ils appartenaient – ont été divisé en deux groupes qui ont pris soit un cocktail d’antioxydants à base de vitamines E et C, de bêta-carotène, de zinc et de sélénium, soit un placebo. Tout au début du projet, des résultats différents ont été obtenus chez les femmes et les hommes : les prises de sang ont révélé que les femmes avaient des taux plus élevés à la fois en vitamines C et en bêta-carotène.

Les hommes à la traîne

La première conclusion des recherches est que les hommes, tout au moins au début de l’étude, du fait de taux moins élevés en bêta-carotène, étaient davantage exposés aux risques de cancer et de maladies cardiovasculaires, ce qui semble être confirmé par d’autres études. En revanche, la situation est autre pour les femmes affichant un taux de bêta-carotène plus élevé. Une analyse plus approfondie démontre une interaction entre la concentration plasmatique en bêta-carotène et la consommation de fruits et légumes. Plus clairement, ceux qui consomment le moins de fruits et légumes, dans ce cas les hommes, ont les taux les moins élevés en bêta-carotène.

Bonnes nouvelles, mais aussi… les mauvaises

La question cruciale est : la consommation accrue d’antioxydants améliore-t-elle la santé ?

  • Qu’il s’agisse des femmes ou des hommes, aucun effet protecteur contre les ischémies cardiaques ne pourrait être attribué à la consommation de suppléments antioxydants.
  • D’autre part et uniquement en ce qui concerne les hommes, une capsule d’antioxydants par jour a réduit les risques de tout type de cancer de 31%.
  • Egalement, le risque de mortalité chez les hommes a considérablement baissé jusqu’à atteindre 37%.

Pas de pilules miracle

La leçon à tirer de l’étude SUVIMAX est claire. Comme l’a montré l’expérience menée sur les femmes, pas besoin de compter entièrement sur les suppléments antioxydants pour réduire les risques de cancer. Une alimentation variée, riche en fruits et légumes est le meilleur moyen de prévention. En revanche, comme il a été observé chez les hommes, ceux qui consomment le moins d’antioxydants dans leur alimentation en ont le plus besoin et peuvent redresser leur équilibre en prenant des suppléments. Ces antioxydants en plus pourraient être pris dans des aliments naturels : par exemple 60g de carottes râpées (beta-carotène) et un kiwi ou une orange (vitamine C), équivalent à la dose prescrite dans SUVIMAX.

Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Antioxidant supplements are used for prevention of several diseases.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effect of antioxidant supplements on mortality in randomized primary and secondary prevention trials. DATA SOURCES AND TRIAL SELECTION: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies published by October 2005. All randomized trials involving adults comparing beta carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E, and selenium either singly or combined vs placebo or vs no intervention were included in our analysis. Randomization, blinding, and follow-up were considered markers of bias in the included trials. The effect of antioxidant supplements on all-cause mortality was analyzed with random-effects meta-analyses and reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-regression was used to assess the effect of covariates across the trials.

DATA EXTRACTION:

We included 68 randomized trials with 232 606 participants (385 publications).

DATA SYNTHESIS:

When all low- and high-bias risk trials of antioxidant supplements were pooled together there was no significant effect on mortality (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.06). Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that low-bias risk trials (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04[corrected]-1.29) and selenium (RR, 0.998; 95% CI, 0.997-0.9995) were significantly associated with mortality. In 47 low-bias trials with 180 938 participants, the antioxidant supplements significantly increased mortality (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08). In low-bias risk trials, after exclusion of selenium trials, beta carotene (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11), vitamin A (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.24), and vitamin E (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), singly or combined, significantly increased mortality. Vitamin C and selenium had no significant effect on mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality. The potential roles of vitamin C and selenium on mortality need further study.

VITAMINE C (ascorbic acid)

VITAMINE C

Donne ses électrons facilement lorsque nécessaire

Aide à régénérer la viatamine E

Peut les recevoir à nouveau pour devenir réactifs, ce qui leur donne la capacité de se recycler à l’infini.

Protège l’oxygène et le fer de l’oxydation

Protège du stress oxydatif

Aide à la protection des artères contre les dommages oxydatifs

Hydrosoluble et peut être éliminé rapidement , environ 24-48 h de rétention avant excrétion

 

ALIMENTS RICHES EN Vitamine E

ALIMENTS RICHES EN VITAMINE E

Portions                              vitamine E

huile de germe de blé                             15 ml (1 cà table)                       21 mg

Amandes non blanchies, rôties à sec ou dans l’huile ou déshydratées   60 ml   9-18 mg

Graines de tournesol rôties à sec                      60 ml                              8 mg

Noisettes , avelines non blanches, rôties à sec   60 ml                        5-8 mg

Huile de tournesol                                                 15 ml                            7 mg

Huile de carthame                                                 15 ml                            7 mg

Céréales à déjeuner , 100 % son (type All bran)    30 g                            3.5 mg

Boisson de soya enrichie                                        250 ml                         3 mg

Huile de maïs ou de canola                                       15 ml                          3 mg

Arachides  rôties dans l’huile                                    60 ml                            2-3 mg

Huile de soya                                                            15 ml                              3 mg

Pâte de tomate en conserve                                      60 ml                              3 mg

Graines de lin                                                              60 ml                              2 mg

Son de maïs ou de blé brut                                           30 g                               2 mg

 

Vitamin E regulates mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation.

Vitamin E regulates mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0054, USA. ckchow@pop.uky.edu
Free Radical Biology & Medicine [1999, 27(5-6):580-587]

Chow CKIbrahim WWei ZChan AC

The mitochondrial electron transport system consumes more than 85% of all oxygen used by the cells, and up to 5% of the oxygen consumed by mitochondria is converted to superoxidehydrogen peroxide, and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal physiologic conditions. Disruption of mitochondrial ultrastructure is one of the earliest pathologic events during vitamin E depletion. The present studies were undertaken to test whether a direct link exists between vitamin E and the production of hydrogen peroxide in the mitochondria. In the first experiment, mice were fed a vitamin E-deficient or-sufficient diet for 15 weeks, after which the mitochondria from liver and skeletal muscle were isolated to determine the rates of hydrogen peroxide production. Deprivation of vitamin E resulted in an approximately 5-fold increase of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in skeletal muscle and a 1-fold increase in liver when compared with the vitamin E-supplemented group. To determine whether vitamin E can dose-dependently influence the production of hydrogen peroxide, four groups of male and female rats were fed diets containing 0, 20, 200, or 2000 lU/kg vitamin E for 90 d. Results showed that dietary vitamin E dose-dependently attenuated hydrogen peroxide production in mitochondria isolated from liver and skeletal muscle of male and female rats. Female rats, however, were more profoundly affected by dietary vitamin E than male rats in the suppression of mitochondrialhydrogen peroxide production in both organs studied. These results showed that vitamin E can directly regulate hydrogen peroxide production in mitochondria and suggest that the overproduction of mitochondrial ROS is the first event leading to the tissue damage observed in vitamin E-deficiencysyndromes. Data further suggested that by regulating mitochondrial production of ROS, vitamin E modulates the expression and activation of signal transduction pathways and other redox-sensitive biologic modifiers, and thereby delays or prevents degenerative tissue changes.

VITAMINE E

VITAMINE E

Antioxydant liposoluble

Absorbé dans l’intestin  grêle

Première défense contre les effets des radicaux libres dans l’organisme

Protection des membranes cellulaires

stocké dans le foie et les adipocytes

Protège les composants cellulaires et leur membrane

Protection des membranes cellulaires

RDA homme 15 mg/j

RDA femme 15 mg/j

Les tissus cellulaires exposés aux quantités les plus importantes des radicaux libres semblent contenir a plus grande quantité de vitamine E

SELENIUM PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONALES

Chemopreventive mechanisms of selenium

Abstract

□ The element selenium (Se) was recognized only 40 years ago as being essential in the nutrition of animals and humans.It is recognized as being an essential component of a number of enzymes in which it is present as the amino acid selenocysteine (SeCys). Selenium compounds have also been found to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models and recent studies indicate that supplemental Se in human diets may reduce cancer risk. Anti-tumorigenic activities have been associated with Se intakes that are more than sufficient to correct nutritionally deficient status; that is, Se appears to be anti-tumorigenic at intakes that are substantially greater than those associated with maximal expression of the known SeCys-containing enzymes. Therefore, while some cancer protection may involve one or more Se-enzymes, it is probable that anti-tumorigenic functions of Se are discharged by certain Se-metabolites produced in significant amounts at relatively high Se intakes.

□ Thus, Se supplementation of individuals with relatively low or frankly deficient natural intakes of the element can be expected to support enhanced antioxidant protection due to increased expression of the Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase. Higher levels of Se-supplementation can be expected to affect other functions related to tumorigenesis: carcinogen metabolism, immune function, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Thus, according to this 2-stage model of the roles of Se in cancer prevention, even individuals with nutritionally adequate Se intakes may benefit from Sesupplementation.

 

Dietary selenium repletion may reduce cancer incidence in people at high risk who live in areas with low soil selenium.

Nutr Rev. 1997 Jul;55(7):277-9.

Abstract

Studies examining the relationship between dietary selenium intake and risk of various cancers have shown that low selenium intake is associated with higher cancer rates. A recent well-controlled intervention trial studied whether selenium supplementation can prevent cancer in subjects who have a history of skin cancer and live in areas of the United States with low soil selenium levels. Selenium supplementation did not reduce skin cancer rates, but the incidence of total, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancers was significantly reduced by the intervention. Although these data need confirmation, they suggest that adequate selenium intake is essential for cancer prevention.

 

Serum antioxidants and skin cancer risk: an 8-year community-based follow-up study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Apr;18(4):1167-73. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1211. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antioxidant nutrients can help prevent skin damage caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, but it is not clear whether serum concentrations of such nutrients influence skin cancer risk.

METHODS:

We carried out a prospective study of the associations between serum concentrations of antioxidant nutrients and incidence (person-based and tumor-based) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin among a random subsample of 485 adults from an Australian community. Participants were divided into thirds, ranked according to their serum concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and selenium measured in 1996 and were monitored for incident, histologically confirmed BCC and SCC tumors until 2004.

RESULTS:

Although there were no associations between baseline serum carotenoids or alpha-tocopherol concentrations and incidence of BCC or SCC, baseline serum selenium concentrations showed strong inverse associations with both BCC and SCC tumor incidence. Compared with participants with lowest selenium concentrations at baseline (0.4-1.0 micromol/L), those with the highest serum selenium concentrations (1.3-2.8 micromol/L) had a decreased incidence of BCC tumors (multivariate relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.86; P(trend) = 0.02) and SCC tumors (multivariate relative risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.82; P(trend) = 0.02).

CONCLUSION:

Relatively high serum selenium concentrations are associated with an approximately 60% decrease in subsequent tumor incidence of both BCC and SCC, whereas serum concentrations of carotenoids or alpha-tocopherol are not associated with later skin cancer incidence. A possible U-shaped association between serum selenium concentrations and SCC of the skin needs confirmation.

Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development.

J Urol. 2001 Dec;166(6):2034-8

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Epidemiological studies and a randomized intervention trial suggest that the risk of prostate cancer may be reduced by selenium intake. We investigated whether plasma selenium level before diagnosis correlated with the risk of later developing prostate cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A case control study was performed on men from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging registry, including 52 with known prostate cancer and 96 age matched controls with no detectable prostatic disease. Plasma selenium was measured at an average time plus or minus standard deviation of 3.83 +/- 1.85 years before the diagnosis of prostate cancer by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were computed with logistic regression.

RESULTS:

After correcting for years before diagnosis, body mass index, and smoking and alcohol use history, higher selenium was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Compared with the lowest quartile of selenium (range 8.2 to 10.7 microg./dl.), the odds ratios of the second (10.8 to 11.8), third (11.9 to 13.2) and fourth (13.3 to 18.2) quartiles were 0.15 (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.50), 0.21 (0.07 to 0.68) and 0.24 (0.08 to 0.77, respectively, p =0.01). Furthermore, plasma selenium decreased significantly with patient age (p <0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Low plasma selenium is associated with a 4 to 5-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. These results support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Because plasma selenium decreases with patient age, supplementation may be particularly beneficial to older men.

 

Dossier 1

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